The 00str00der is a belt-driven, gear-based, open-source extruder design intended for RepRap 3D Printers. It uses a precision linear-drive system to drive a hobbed bolt (or similar drive that grips filament/material), which in turn supplies filament to a nozzle used for 3D printing. The inspiration and research for this work was a natural progression based on existing open-source designs and is a result of collaboration between Lee Miller and Terawatt Industries (Colorado, USA). It is based on previous geared-extruder designs such as Wade's Geared Extruder, Adrian's Geared Extruder, and others; as well as Terawatt Industries' experience with RepRap drive systems.
- 1 Summary
- 2 Background
- 3 Mechanical Construction
- 4 Extruder Calibration
- 5 Stepper Driver
The designers first shared concepts for the component in 2012, and agreed to collaborate on design and testing in January, 2013. Lee Miller designed the first 00str00der for an H-Bot-style 3D Printer (TBA) with Bowden-style extrusion. Free Beachler of Terawatt Industries revised the design to work with a PrismX by supplying the Sheliak X-Carriage design. Both designs are being converged (rev. C) and a mounting plate has been added to attach this extruder to carriages like [http://www.thingiverse.com/thing:18657].
The 00str00der is designed to be affordable while offering greater precision, durability, and speed compared to extruder designs based on printed gears. It uses a small closed-loop GT2 belt to transfer power from a NEMA17 motor to a M8 hobbed bolt. GT2 pulleys are used on the NEMA motor and hobbed bolt to achieve an approximately 4:1 gear ratio. PLA and ABS filaments are driven by an M8 hobbed bolt, as is 'traditional' in the related designs mentioned here.
Terawatt Industries has tested and calibrated this component on a PrismX running at infill speeds up to 400mm/s. The 00str00der was first tested and proven on a PrismX 3D Printer in March, 2013 by Terawatt Industries. In April 2013 tests with the 00str00der on an h-bot in Bowden configuration were performed by Lee Miller. It performs exceptionally well in both configurations. On the PrismX it printed approx. 250+ hours total in March-April 2013.
I'll say qualitatively: it's difficult to drive a reprap (Prism, MendelMax, whatever) fast or hard enough to stress the 00str00der's drive system noticeably. During prints the nozzle experienced problems before we could drive our machine fast enough to stress the 00str00der or frame. During simple extrusion tests we hit speeds in excess of 1500mm/s; as noted before the nozzle shows problems performing at this speed.
The primary advantages to this design approach include:
- The belt-driven system is very smooth, therefore resistance in the drive system is decreased. The positive side-effects from this are several including: faster drive, more accurate drive, potential for smaller/cheaper/lighter motors such as NEMA14.
- The belt-driven system can be precisely calibrated. Instead of marking filament and attempting to measure travel inside of the robot's gantry (frame), we can measure the width of the hobbed bolt, and use a calculator for the rest.
- The belt-driven gear system is very durable. Printed gears shed PLA/ABS material within 100 hours of printing. The belts and pulleys are rated for 1000s of kilometers and more.
- Set-screws on the GT2 pulleys work more effectively than most set-screws on printed gears. Last longer too.
- The ratio of gears can be adjusted. One-to-one (direct-drive) can be achieved with a set of 36T GT2 pulleys.
Some disadvantages to this system include:
- The gears can't be printed, they must be sourced. This means we can't hack a new kind of herringbone gear and print/test it on an extruder. Purists will note, however, we can print decent GT2 pulleys in certain contexts...
- All the other disadvantages that come with using non-printed parts such as: finding suppliers, specifications, availability, lead-time, etc.
NOTE: Refer to the "Version History" section for information about the 00str00der's change history. These photos and BOM lists are not always current. However, the variations in the 1.x versions are slight and photos from older versions should still assist in assembly.
Version 1.0 BOM: http://kitbom.com/terawattindustries/00str00der-extruder-v10
Version 1.1 BOM: http://kitbom.com/terawattindustries/00str00der-extruder-v11
See Terawatt's 00str00der Github repo for slicing instructions.
|1||extruder idler block|
|1||adapter plate||optional - for mounting to www.thingiverse.com/thing:18657 - not needed for Sheliak X-Carriage|
- hardware BOM has changed in version 1.0; refer to "Version History" section.
- pulley sizes have changed in version 1.1; refer to "Version History" section.
We still need assembly instructions for the latest version. However many people have put their 00str00der kits together with only assembly guides based on earlier ancestors:
How to make the hobbed bolt
We've been using Terawatt Industries hobbed and knurled bolts with this component, which is a M8x60mm bolt hobbed at 30mm from the head. 65mm+ works slightly better with the current (Rev. B) extruder block design. We're considering a few options around revising this, including using a non-threaded M8 rod or other machined options; but currently the 'traditional' hobbed bolt works great.
If you don't want to purchase a hobbed bolt then Wade's_Geared_Extruder describes how to make your own.
Direct-drive configuration is where the 00str00der sits on a moving platform attached to the print-head (hot end), such as an X-carriage, as is popular on many Mendel-type designs.
There are two ways to upgrade or retro-fit an existing direct-drive machine to an 00str00der:
- Use the 00str00der Adapter Plate to attach to a compatible X-carriage. This is the fastest way. The plate is designed to work with hole spacing used on many popular open-source x-carriages found on the interwebs. (TODO: cite hole-spacing spec).
- Assemble the extruder on the adapter plate.
- Attach 00str00der+plate to an existing x-carriage.
- Use the Sheliak X-Carriage to replace the entire x-carriage. The Sheliak X-Carriage is designed specifically for the 00str00der and is compatible with many Mendel-type machines that use 50mm linear rail spacing. The best reason to replace the whole X-carriage is to take advantage of the press-fit bearing mounts on the Sheliak X-carriage. CAD files for the Sheliak X-carriage are in the PrismX 3D Printer Github repository.
- Assemble the x-carriage
- Assemble the 00str00der tower
- Attach the 00str00der to the x-carriage
- Replace an existing x-carriage with the new one.
Bowden configuration is where the 00str00der sits stationary, attached to a printer frame or externally, such as on many Delta 3D Printers and the UConduit H-Bot 3D printer.
For Bowden configurations upgrading or retrofitting an existing 3D printer with an 00str00der extruder should be straightforward. You will need to mount the 00str00der to the frame. The UConduit H-bot 3D printer has an example mount, but this is to attach to 3/4" tubing. Somebody needs to design a mount for other types of frame materials...
NOTE: The photos above apply to version 0.9.
- Rev. A: for use with h-bot in Bowden configuration
- Rev. B: for use with Prism/MendelMax machine; 3-point attachment to Sheliak x-carriage
- Rev. C: converges rev.A + B; testing started: for use with M4x50mm bolts on idler
Based on 0.9 Rev. C. Considered stable. Vitamin BOM refined for nylock nuts and M4 screws for j-head groove-mount.
The complete version 1.0 BOM can be found on KitBom at http://kitbom.com/terawattindustries/00str00der-extruder-v10.
Considered stable. Same as version 1.0 but with 60T big pulley, 16T small pulley. 16T pulleys easier to source; 1:3.25 ratio reduces torque on tower; 60T pulley allows access to groove mount set-screws.
The complete version 1.1 BOM can be found on KitBom at http://kitbom.com/terawattindustries/00str00der-extruder-v11.
3D CAD Files
IMPORTANT: STL files are not organized by version number - they are organized by GT2 pulley and belt sizes. Read the README file at https://github.com/Terawatt-Industries/00str00der/dist/stl/README.md for more.
Terawatt Industries has created the 00str00der Configurator which calculates the steps-per-mm for you. To use the 00str00der Configurator open a web browser to http://store.terawattindustries.com/00config.
The procedure to calibrate the 00str00der is as follows:
- Measure the O.D. of the knurled (hobbed) area of the M8 hobbed bolt, preferably with digital calipers. The exact OD will depend on things like manufacturer and batch.
- Calculate the gear ratio between small and larger gear.
- Find the step angle for the motor - most common NEMA17 motors are 200 steps per revolution.
- Find the microstepping value supported by your stepper drivers. This usually depends on brand of driver and type of control electronics.
- Use the following formula:
steps_per_mm = (gear_ratio / (hobbed_bolt_OD * Pi)) * ((360 / motor_step_size) * (1 / driver_microstepping))
- A hobbed bolt where the knurled bolt measures 7.52mm in outer-diameter (O.D.)
- The gear ratio for a 17-to-65-tooth gear system is ~3.8235. In other words, ~3.8235 revolutions of the smaller gear equal one revolution of the larger gear.
- NEMA17 motors are common with 1.8 step angle and RAMPS 1.4 with pololu drivers supports 1/16 microstepping.
steps_per_mm = (3.8235 / (7.52 * 3.1416)) * ((360 / 1.8) * (1 / 1/16)) = 517.8957 ~= 517.9
You can use community-tested electronics to drive this extruder. Newer electronics like Smoothieboard will work fine too.