It is named after Albrecht Kossel, German biochemist and pioneer in the study of genetics. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1910 for his work in determining the chemical composition of nucleic acids, the genetic substance of biological cells.
There are several printers in the Kossel family.
- Spectra line instead of timing belt.
- 623 bearings running directly on vertical 15 x 15 mm aluminum extrusion like OpenBeam, 6 bearings per carriage.
- PG35L extruder directly on the end effector (moving platform).
- This design is deprecated but the source files are still available.
OpenBeam Kossel Pro
- Terence Tam's design for mass manufacturing.
- Successfully funded on Kickstarter.
- Stamped and injection molded parts instead of 3D printed.
- This is Johann's latest and stable version.
- The rest of this page describes the details of Mini Kossel.
- Zero backlash.
- Type: Delta printer
- Speed: 320 mm/s in all 3 directions.
- Resolution: 100 steps/mm in all 3 directions.
- Repeatability: better than 0.03 mm (30 micron)
- Build volume: cylindrical, 170mm diameter, 240mm height.
- Footprint: triangle, 300 mm width (240mm OpenBeam + printed corners).
- Frame height: 600 mm.
- Print surface: unheated round glass, doesn't move.
- Mass of end effector with hotend: less than 50 grams.
- Simplicity: fewer than 200 parts.
- Hardware cost: less than $600 USD.
- Fully automatic print surface level calibration (autoleveling).
- Frame height: 550 mm.
- Footprint: triangle, 270 mm width, 250 mm across (210mm 15 x 15 mm aluminum extrusion like OpenBeam + printed corners).
Bill of Materials
All files come from Johann's Kossel repo: https://github.com/jcrocholl/kossel
- 1x hotend_fan.stl which also serves to attach the hotend.
- 1x plate_1x.stl which includes the following parts:
- 3x plate_3x.stl which includes the following parts:
Recommended print settings:
- Layer height = 0.2 to 0.3 mm (around 60% of your nozzle size)
- Perimeters = 3
- Top/bottom solid layers = 3
- Infill density = 50%
Note, a PLA End effector may bend or warp if it is not cooled with a fan or insulated. The insulation can be as simple as a loose layer of tin foil to create air pockets between the tin foil and the part. An ABS end effector is less likely to bend. It can also help to insulate parts of the hot end with Kapton tape.
- Quality machined aluminum parts are available from RobotDigg
- 3x 600mm vertical OpenBeam from Builda3dprinter.eu or OpenBeam.de or Misumi HFS3-1515
- 9x 240mm horizontal OpenBeam from Builda3dprinter.eu or OpenBeam.de or Misumi HFS3-1515
- 1x 170mm round glass/borosilicate plate TriDPrinting.com or Makea3dfactory.comor Builda3dprinter.eu or Ultibots LLC or 3dprinteu.eu/shop
- 100x M3x8mm stainless steel screws (frame and most connections)
- 100x M3 stainless steel nuts
- 100x M3 nyloc nuts
- 6x M3x20mm stainless steel screws (arm attachment to vertical carriage)
- 12x M3x25mm stainless steel screws (belt idlers and effector-rod attachments)
- 6x M3x35mm stainless steel screws (tensioners)
- 50x M3x6mm stainless steel screws (rail attachment to extrusions - 8mm is too long!)
- 12x M3x16mm stainless steel screws (push rod attachment)
- 6x M2.5x12mm screws (micro switches)
- 3x M2.5x16mm (automatic bed leveling probe)
- 3x 400mm hardened steel rail and carriages HIWIN MGN-12H
- 3x 1164mm GT2 belt closed loop with 2mm pitch and 6mm width - UltiBots LLC.
- 6x F623ZZ flanged bearings 3x10x4mm (or F684ZZ 4x9x4mm for printed parts before June 21st)
- 3x GT2 pulley with 16 teeth and 2mm pitch
- 3x Kysan NEMA17 stepper motor,TriDPrinting.comor Builda3dprinter.eu or UltiBots LLC.
Diagonal push rods
- 1x J-Head Hotend 0.5mm for 1.75mm filament
- 1x Clear PFA tubing ID=2mm OD=4mm
- 2x Push fit connector ID=4mm with M5 thread (or bigger thread before June 21st).
- 1x NEMA-17 motor with an integrated Planetary gearbox with a 5 2/11 :1 ratio.(http://robot-italy.com, Builda3dprinter.eu for EU (http://www.phidgets.com/products.php?product_id=3317 in US).
- 1x Spur Gear, 22 Tooth, 12mm od, 8mm id - #S10T05M022S0508 from SDP-SIor Builda3dprinter.eu. Alternately, a Hardened MK7 drive gear that fits the geared stepper motor is available from TriDPrinting.com
- 3x M3-0.5x25 Cap Screw
- 3x M3 Washer
- 1x 625 ball bearing (5x16x5)
- 1x M5-0.8x20 Cap Screw
- 1x M5 Washer
- 1x M5-0.8 Hex Nut (Nylock optional)
- 1x M3-0.5x16 Cap Screw
- 1x M3 Washer
- 1x M3-0.5 Hex Nut, Nylock
Automatic Bed Leveling Options - Only need one of the following, depending on which you choose.
FSR(force sensitive resistor)
- 3x FSR circular pads
- 3x mounts for fsr pads
Bed leveling probe
- 1x Micro switch (same as for endstops above)
- 1x Bondhus 1.5mm allen wrench
- 1x Safety pin with 2.5mm loop
- 2x Ball point pen spring
- 1x Euro-style terminal block connector
- 1x Heat shrink tubing ID=2mm
Excellent guide to set up proximity leveling can be found on Instructables, search for "auto bed leveling Marlin"
- 1x PNP Inductive proximity sensor
Several versions are available but the most popular and simple to use is the LJ12A3-4-Z/BY. This model works at 6-36vdc(many other models need at least 12v), and has a sensing distance of 4mm. Can be bought on eBay for <$5
- 1x mount for your specific effector/carriage
- 1 Electronics setup RepRap Interface Standard #RIS 1 compatible or anything else compatible
- 1x 12V 5A LCD screen power supply
- 1x 3010 DC Fan and 1x 4515 Blower Fan RobotDigg
This is not a comprehensive list, but should give you an idea of what tools may be required. Review all build manuals/videos to ensure you have all necessary tools.
- 1x metric caliper
- 1x M4 Tap Drill bit
- 1x M5 Tap Drill bit
- 1x 1.5 mm allen wrench
- 1x slow-set epoxy
Step By Step Instructions
Instructions for Kossel Mini kits from Blomker Industries
Detailed build manual from Think3dPrint3d with pictures for every step is available here:
This is a GERMAN translation of Think3dPrint3d's manual:
Wiring and commissioning instructions for Mini Kossel using 32-bit Duet electronics:
https://miscsolutions.wordpress.com/2015/01/04/upgrading-the-mini-kossel-to-duet-electronics-part-1-hardware/ and the other articles in that series
Video assembly from the perspective of someone new to the Kosssel:
X_MAX, Y_MAX, Z_MAX top endstops: NC (Normally Connected). M119 for these should show:
- TRIGGERED when the carriage touches the endstop.
- open during normal operation.
Z_MIN autolevel probe: NO (Normally Open). M119 for Z_MIN should show:
- TRIGGERED when the autolevel probe is retracted (up).
- open when the autolevel probe is deployed (down).
- TRIGGERED when the autolevel probe touches the print surface.
Make sure that M119 does NOT show X_MIN or Y_MIN, if it does you must change them to -1 in Marlin/pins.h.
Although the parts list suggests that a small allen wrench be used, in reality, a short piece of wire might work slightly better since it can rotate more easily.
Viki LCD with Azteeg X3
Connect Viki J2 to Azteeg EXP3 port like this:
- +5V to +5V (red)
- GND to GND (black)
- SDA to SDA (blue)
- SCL to SCL (green)
- ENC_A to D22 (white)
- ENC_B to D7 (yellow)
Connect Viki J3 to Azteeg ICSP port like this:
- CS to CHIP SELECT (D53) (red)
- BTN to D32 on EXP2 (optional) (black)
- DI to MOSI (blue)
- CLK to SCK (green)
- DO to MISO (white)
- CD to CARD DETECT (D49)(yellow)
CS (D53) and CD (D49) are directly next to the ICSP port, slightly under the expansion shield, but the connectors still work fine if you push them in slightly angled.
BTN is for the pause/stop/resume LCD button (kill switch). We recommend not connecting it and using a power switch for emergency stop instead. If you do want to use it, it should be connected to the Arduino BTN_ENC pin. Otherwise set BTN_ENC to -1 if not used.
This uses the LiquidTWI2 library v1.2.3 or later. Copy the LiquidTWI2 directory into the Arduino libraries subdirectory (something like /Applications/Arduino.app/Contents/Resources/Java/libraries/LiquidTWI2, just next to the existing LiquidCrystal folder). If you end up with a directory named "LiquidTWI2-master" then remove the "-master" part. We tested this successfully with Johann's latest Marlin version (as of 2014-03-21) and Arduino 1.0.5.
In Marlin/Configuration.h uncomment or adjust the following lines:
- #define MOTHERBOARD 33 // Azteeg X3
- #define LCD_I2C_VIKI
In Marlin/pins.h under MOTHERBOARD == 33 adjust the following lines:
- #define SDSS 53
- #define SDCARDDETECT 49
- #define BTN_EN1 22
- #define BTN_EN2 7
- #define BTN_ENC 31
Disconnect solder jumper JP12 at bottom of Azteeg X3 to disable onboard SD slot and use pins for external SD reader (Viki LCD SD slot).
Where to buy
- Kossel Pulley Diy Kit
- Specialized shop in Delta printers with video manual to build a Kossel mini and the Kossel XL
- RobotDigg parts n full kits
- Assembly Guide for Blomker Industries Kossel Mini Kit
- KITS $239
- Delta bigger size kit
- Complete Kossel Mini Kit at $599USD ONLY!!
- HKBay.com GERMAN translation of Think3dPrint3d's manual
- Think3dPrint3d's detailed documentation on Kossel mini assembly
- Project blog on Tumblr
- Calibrating a delta printer manually
- Calibration video using Repetier firmware
- Auto calibration video using IR height sensor with Duet electronics and firmware
- Pictures on Flickr
- Mailing list for questions and answers
- OpenSCAD source files on GitHub for printed plastic parts.
- Modified Marlin firmware on GitHub for delta geometry on Arduino.
- RepRapFirmware for delta geometry on Duet.
- Frame size calculator spreadsheet.
- Online forum for delta printers with vast resources.
- A prototype heatbed design for the Mini Kossel.
- How to build a Kossel in china《搭建kossel3d打印机》
- UltiBots Mini Kossel V-Slot Kit
- Mini Kossel FSR Auto Leveling Setup Guide
- single/dual/bigger delta KITS $179
- Larger (300mm dia. x 480mm print volume) high-accuracy Kossel design and parts list
- How to use Duet electronics in a Kossel
- Assembled from $259 Kits from $225